Academic quality is concerned with how well the learning opportunities made available to students enable them to achieve their award. It is about making sure that appropriate and effective teaching, support, assessment and learning resources are provided for them. 
Academic standards are the standards that individual degree-awarding bodies set and maintain for the award of its academic credit or qualifications. These may exceed the threshold academic standards (the minimum acceptable level of achievement that a student has to demonstrate to be eligible for an academic award). Individual degree-awarding bodies are responsible for defining their own academic standards by setting the pass marks and determining the grading/marking schemes and any criteria for classification of qualifications that differentiate between levels of student achievement above and below the threshold academic standards. 
Franchise arrangement or franchised provision: An agreement by one provider (the "franchising provider"), usually one with degree-awarding powers, that another provider may deliver all or part of a programme approved and owned by the franchising provider. Students will usually be registered at and have a direct contractual relationship with the franchising provider. The franchising provider normally retains overall control of the programme’s content, delivery, assessment and quality assurance arrangements. Such arrangements are also sometimes referred to as "sub-contractual" arrangements.
Validation arrangement or validated provision: An agreement under which one provider (the "awarding provider"), usually one with degree-awarding powers, judges all or part of a programme developed and delivered by another provider (the "delivery provider") and approves it as being of an appropriate standard and quality to contribute, or lead, to one of the awarding provider’s awards. Students normally have a direct contractual relationship with the delivery provider.